The son of Francois I, Henri II reigns from 1547-1559. In his reign remember the "Burning Houses" implanted in all the parliaments of the kingdom to punish heresy, his alliance with the German Protestant princes and the treaty of Cateau-Cambresis, signed by Philip II in 1559, by which France gave Italy, comes to Saint Quentin, preserves Calais (which had been recovered in 1558) and "three bishoprics of 1552" is not mentioned in the text of the treaty. In addition to all this is impossible not to mention that gloriously peculiar circumstances prevailing at the time curious, all three sons will be kings of France! And his wife, Catherine de Medicis issue, will play the role of Regent and Queen Mother that way! In 1559, the date on which Henri II dies and is succeeded by his son, a minor, Francois II, France had about two thousand "reformed circles" or Huguenots. A substantial fraction of the nobility had acceded to the new doctrine: Antonio de Bourbon, King of Navarre, Louis de Conde and the two Chatillon (Francisco d'Andelot and Gaspar Coligny). The situation tended, suddenly, to worsen, if takes into account that at that time was quite heated because of the events in 1534 (posting of notices up in the same room of the king in Amboise, anti-Catholic) and 1545 (slaughter ordered by the Parliament of Aix, consent and King), but especially for the rigorous anti-Protestant legislation adopted throughout his reign by Henri II (-1559 Ecouen edict – which orders "without trial abate all Protestant revolt or flee.") Franois II was only fifteen when he became king and was married to Marie Stuart, niece of Guise to be installed, in part, in power, with all its great influence and glory.